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A shift in the ocean circulation has warmed the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean since 2016

The Subpolar North Atlantic is known for rapid reversals of decadal temperature trends, with ramifications encompassing the large-scale meridional overturning and gyre circulations, Arctic heat and mass balances, or extreme continental weather. Here, …

A Road Map to IndOOS-2: Better observations of the rapidly-warming Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS), established in 2006, is a multinational network of sustained oceanic measurements that underpin understanding and forecasting of weather and climate for the Indian Ocean region and beyond. Almost one-third …

Preparing the New Phase of Argo: Scientific Achievements of the NAOS Project

Argo, the international array of profiling floats, is a major component of the global ocean and climate observing system. In 2010, the NAOS (Novel Argo Observing System) project was selected as part of the French “Investissements d’Avenir” Equipex …

Heat stored in the Earth system: where does the energy go?

Human-induced atmospheric composition changes cause a radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere which is driving global warming. This Earth energy imbalance (EEI) is the most critical number defining the prospects for continued global warming …

Variability in the global energy budget and transports 1985–2017.

The study of energy flows in the Earth system is essential for understanding current climate change. To understand how energy is accumulating and being distributed within the climate system, an updated reconstruction of energy fluxes at the top of …

Importance of boundary processes for heat uptake in the Subpolar North Atlantic

The decadal to multidecadal temperature variability of the intermediate (700–2,000 m) North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (SPG) significantly imprints the global pattern of ocean heat uptake. Here, the origins and dominant pathways of this variability are …

On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi-Disciplinary Array.

The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. …

Pending recovery in the strength of the meridional overturning circulation at 26°N

The strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) at 26∘ N has now been continuously measured by the RAPID array over the period April 2004–September 2018. This record provides unique insight into the variability of the …

Surface predictor of overturning circulation and heat content change in the subpolar North Atlantic

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) impacts ocean and atmosphere temperatures on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Here we use observational datasets to validate model-based inferences on the usefulness of thermodynamics …

Model derived uncertainties in deep ocean temperature trends between 1990-2010

We construct a novel framework to investigate the uncertainties and biases associated with estimates of deep ocean temperature change from hydrographic sections and demonstrate this framework in an eddy‐permitting ocean model. Biases in estimates …